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AHVLA Surveillance Monthly Report - October 2011

2011-12-23 8:26:00

<b>UK - PCVAD was diagnosed on a unit reporting rapid weight loss with malaise and diarrhoea in approximately twenty 11-week-old unvaccinated pigs.</b>

<h3>Reproductive Disease</h3><h4>Abortion due to bacterial infection possibly associated with rodents</h4>

Foetuses with placentas were submitted from a batch of 120 outdoor sows in which seven werefound not-in-pig near-term and three abortions occurred one week pre-term. Pasteurellapneumotropica was isolated from two of three foetal stomach contents cultured and Trueperellapyogenes was isolated from all three foetal stomach contents. <em<Pasteurella pneumotropica canbe an opportunist pathogen in pigs and as it is carried by rodents, it was recommended thatrodent control should be reviewed. The Trueperella pyogenes infection may reflect asuppurative focus elsewhere in the sow�s body or could be a secondary suppurative infection inthe foetuses. It was recommended that if problems were ongoing, submission of furtherfoetuses with placentae would be worthwhile to investigate further.

<h3>Alimentary Diseases</h3><h4>PCV2-associated disease causing wasting and diarrhoea in unvaccinated pigs</h4>

Porcine circovirus 2-associated disease (PCVAD) was diagnosed on a unit reporting rapidweight loss with malaise and diarrhoea in approximately 20 of 580 11-week-old pigs. Allaffected pigs were from gilt litters with no PCV2 vaccine being used in either breeding pigs orthe affected pigs. Three euthanased pigs were submitted, all in poor body condition and pale.All three had enlarged inguinal lymph nodes and two had pneumonia affecting cranioventralparts of the lung and diarrhoea. Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniaewere isolated from pneumonic lung and histopathology revealed lymphoid lesions withintracytoplasmic viral inclusions which, together with the wasting confirmed a diagnosis ofPMWS. There was also PCV2 involvement in the enteritis in the two pigs with diarrhoea.

<h4>Neonatal scour due to rotavirus developing rapidly after birth</h4>

Three live piglets were submitted from an indoor breeding herd which was experiencing aproblem of diarrhoea within 24 hours of birth followed by loss of condition in a third of litters ineach batch. Affected piglets were from sows of all parities and, in affected litters, approximately50 per cent of piglets showed signs. There was partial response to antimicrobial treatment if caseswere detected early. The three piglets submitted were two to three days old and hadexcessively liquid intestinal contents in which rotavirus was detected. Histological findings werepredominantly those of villus atrophy, consistent with a diagnosis of rotaviral enteritis. In onepig, there was also a mild to acute suppurative enteritis with villus atrophy and Gram positiveclostridium-like organisms were present in the small intestine suggesting possible concurrentClostridium perfringens infection, which the mild lesions suggest would be type A.Gammaglobulin estimation in two piglets suggested that colostral antibody transfer was lessthan optimal in one and borderline for the other (no reference ranges are available for pigs, thisis based on comparison with calf and lamb reference ranges).

<h4>Postweaning E. coli diarrhoea</h4>

A nine week-old Duroc cross pig was submitted to investigate sudden deaths on a small farrowto finish unit with continuous flow. Animals were affected approximately ten to fourteen days after they were weaned at six weeks old. Post mortem examination revealed markeddehydration and dark purple discoloured, distended small intestine with watery brown flocculentcontents. Culture of small intestine produced a growth of E. coli 0149:K91, K88 ac (also knownas Abbotstown), an enterotoxigenic serotype of E. coli involved in post-weaning diarrhoea.

<h4>Low grade scour in growers due to Brachyspira pilosicoli</h4>

Brachyspira pilosicoli colitis was diagnosed as the cause of green-grey diarrhoea in 15 per cent of1,900 13-week-old pigs on an indoor unit which developed over the weekend prior tosubmission of faecal samples from which the organism was isolated.

<h3>Respiratory Disease</h3><h4>Swine influenza diagnosed by submission from nasal swabs from coughing pigs</h4>

Bury St Edmunds diagnosed two outbreaks of swine influenza, the virus strains involved arebeing identified but were not pandemic H1N1 2009. In both cases there was widespreadcoughing in four or five-week-old pigs on indoor units with low level mortality and swineinfluenza was diagnosed by detection of influenza A virus by PCR on nasal swabs submitted forfree testing under the Defra-funded swine influenza surveillance project.

<h4>Complex respiratory disease including swine influenza and bacterial pathogens</h4>

Complex mixed disease was diagnosed in five dead pigs in poor body condition submitted froma nursery-finisher where approximately 70 of 3,200 pigs six-weeks or older had died in the twoweeks prior to submission. Some had shown nervous signs, others dyspnoea and some pigswere looking pale. Post mortem examination revealed fibrinous polyserositis of varying severityand cranioventral consolidation affecting 20 to 30 per cent of lung tissue. Streptococcus suis type 2was isolated from lesioned sites and swine influenza virus (not pandemic H1N1 2009 strain),Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and M.hyorhinis were all detected inpneumonic lung. Histopathology suggested that the pneumonias were primarily of bacterialaetiology, although the swine influenza virus was suspected to be a likely initiating factor. Therewas no evidence of PCV2 or PRRS virus involvement. Two pigs had gastric ulcers whichaccounted for anaemia and reported pale appearance. Pneumonia is a recognised risk factorfor the development of gastric ulcers, probably due to an interruption in food intake.

<h4>Pasteurellosis in weaners</h4>

Systemic pasteurellosis was diagnosed as the cause of dyspnoea and rapid death of six-weekoldpigs from one litter on a small backyard holding of 15 pigs. Despite antimicrobial treatmentprior to death, there was a very heavy growth of Pasteurella multocida in systemic distribution.Pig lice (Haematopinus suis) were also found on the carcase.

<h4>Iron deficiency anaemia and PRRS in pre-weaned piglets</h4>

A problem described as �pale pigs fading from two to three weeks old� with approximately 25 per centof all piglets affected was investigated. Five pre-weaned piglets were submitted, of which allappeared markedly pale and hairy. There were a few areas of purple-grey consolidation in lunglobes. Histopathology revealed pronounced extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleenconsistent with iron deficiency anaemia which was confirmed by low liver iron concentrations(average 736 μmol/kg DM (reference range 5,000-120,000). Interestingly, two of the pigletsalso tested positive by PCR for the presence of PRRSv (European strain), which was likely tobe involved in the pneumonia.

<h3>Systemic & Miscellaneous Diseases</h3><h4>E. coli septicaemia in neonatal piglets</h4>

Illness was reported in neonatal piglets on a large indoor weaner-producer unit. Piglets wereborn healthy, but at three to four-days-old became lethargic and developed red-purplediscolouration of the skin of the ventral body and approximately 80 per cent of affected piglets died ifleft untreated. Examination of submitted neonatal piglets revealed varying degrees of fibrinousperitonitis, pleuritis and pericarditis with generalised lymphadenopathy. Cultures revealedsepticaemic distribution of E. coli O20:K17; serogroup O20 has been reported in the literature inassociation with septicaemia in neonatal piglets. Problems were seen at a higher prevalence ingilt litters and there was some evidence of suboptimal transfer of passive immunity viacolostrum. There was no evidence of PRRS. The importance of farrowing house hygiene andcolostral management were emphasised, but given the consistent isolation of an organism withan association with neonatal porcine septicaemia, implementation of an autogenous vaccine isbeing considered.

<h4>Electricity failure followed by outbreak of likely greasy pig and Streptococcus suissepticaemia in weaned pigs</h4>

Thirsk investigated a severe outbreak of suspected greasy pig disease affecting three quartersof 220 five-week-old weaned pigs. A few days after the pigs were weaned and placed in thepens, there was an electricity failure that resulted in poor ventilation and no feed for a number ofhours. Three days after this event, clinical signs started to develop. A piglet submitted toinvestigate had extensive scab formation, erythema and greasy exudate covering the wholebody with peeling skin, especially on the ears and the nasal plane. There was also generalisedlymph node enlargement, lung oedema, excess pericardial fluid and prominent meningealvessels suggestive of septicaemia and Streptococcus suis type 1 was isolated from the liver,pericardial fluid and skin. The cause of greasy pig disease, Staphylococcus hyicus, wasisolated although only from the lungs in this particular pig (with Staphylococcus aureus) but wasconsidered the likely original cause of the skin lesions. The period of stress resulting from theelectricity failure was thought to be the precipitating factor causing multiple infections involvingseveral resident pathogens.

<h4>Deaths due to erysipelas septicaemia and heart valve lesions</h4>

Multiple diagnoses of erysipelas were made, most in unvaccinated smallholder pigs. Two typicalexamples are described below:

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae septicaemia was established as the cause of death of a five-montholdfattening pig on a smallholding. It was one of two kept outdoors, which presented withpyrexia and anorexia, with one having a slight cough. The coughing pig recovered but the otherdeteriorated and died. Necropsy findings were suggestive of septicaemia and Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen. In addition a louse infestation (Haematopinus suis)and a significant ascarid worm burden were found. Advice was given on treatment andmanagement.

One of three 10-week-old growing pigs on a smallholding was affected for two days withpyrexia, lethargy, respiratory distress, weakness and inappetence. The problem began the dayprior to submission and the pig showed terminal fitting and died. The pigs were brought ontothe site three-weeks prior to submission and the other two pigs in the group were well. Thesignificant gross findings were a vegetative valvular endocarditis affecting the leftatrioventricular valve, fibrinous pericarditis, pulmonary oedema and no evidence of recent foodintake. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the heart valve lesion confirming adiagnosis of erysipelas. Vaccination of the remaining pigs was implemented.

<h4>Clostridial hepatitis in sows</h4>

The carcase of a 2 year-old Landrace sow in late pregnancy was submitted to Preston from agroup of 120 dry sows, two of which died suddenly over four days. Although most of thecarcase appeared quite fresh, the liver was very decomposed and contained numerous gasbubbles giving it an �aero-chocolate� appearance. Heavily blood stained fluid was present in thepericardial sac and thorax. Clostridium novyi was detected in liver by FAT confirming clostridialdisease as the cause of death.

<h3>Nervous Disease</h3><h4>Typical streptococcal meningitis due to Streptococcus suis 2 infection</h4>

Two of 20 10-week-old pigs were found dead on a breeder-finisher unit. There were nonspecificgross lesions of fibrin stranding, moderately enlarged submandibular lymph nodes andthere was marked dilation of the superficial cerebral vessels and some accumulations of cloudyto turbid material within cerebral sulci suggesting meningitis which was confirmed by detectionof Streptococcus suis type 2 by FAT and culture.

<h3>Skin Disease</h3><h4>Ringworm in breeding sows</h4>

Ringworm was diagnosed by Aberystwyth when fungal hyphae were seen in a stained smeartaken from large circular reddened scaly skin lesions on two adult breeding sows. The lesionswere widespread across the body of both sows on the holding.

<h4>Mange in an organic herd</h4>

A skin scrape was submitted from an organic breeder-finisher unit to investigate the cause of aventral rash including the perineal area and the tops of the legs, which developed into scalylesions. Approximately 20 per cent of the pigs were affected and itchy and several had very thickenedskin. Microscopic examination of the skin scrapes revealed many round mites typical ofSarcoptes species confirming a diagnosis of mange. The origin of infection was uncertain asthe herd was closed with good biosecurity but could be recrudescence of inapparent infection;this species of mite occurs in a wide range of mammals but has evolved into host-specific'strains' although zoonotic infections do occur in humans from contact with infested dogs, cattleand pigs.

<h3>Musculoskeletal Disease</h3><h4>Staphylococcus hyicus causing severe joint ill in preweaned pigs</h4>

An eight-day-old piglet was submitted to investigate an outbreak of what was described as�aggressive joint-ill�, which affected large numbers of pre-weaned piglets from four to ten daysold from various litters on a breeding unit. There was some response to amoxycillin treatmentby injection. Post-mortem examination confirmed arthritis with joints swollen and distended withturbid joint fluid. The surrounding tissues were also extensively swollen, red discoloured andoedematous and the navel was also swollen, red and oedematous. Staphylococcus hyicus wascultured in profuse pure growth from the affected joints, while Trueperella pyogenes wasisolated from the navel. Control measures include attention to colostral intake and hygiene andaddressing any factors which could damage the skin allowing the organism to enter.

<h4>Streptococcal septicaemia and joint infections</h4>

Two dead pigs were submitted from an indoor nursery unit where six of 1300 pigs were affected10 days after arrival with lameness and recumbency and four had died in the three days prior tosubmission. Gross findings were of a fibrinous polyarthritis in both pigs and polyserositis in one, with meningitis. Surprisingly, food was present in the stomach of both pigs indicating a veryacute onset of disease. Streptococcus suis type 2 was isolated from meninges, livers, lungsand joints confirming the involvement of this organism with the disease. There was no evidenceof underlying viral involvement.

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